22 July Circle is a circular fountain situated at the intersection of three roads: Maitri Chit, Mittraphan, and Santiphap Roads. It was constructed to commemorate the day King Vajiravudh led the country into the First World War in Europe on 22 July 1917, siding with the entente with Britain, France, Belgium, Russia, and other nations fighting against the Central Powers which included Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey. The Thai Government recruited volunteer soldiers and, after training, sent a troop of 1,284 men to Europe, who fought alongside the Allied armies until the war was over.
The participation in the war brought many advantages to the country. Thailand gained some economic benefits and forged strong political bonds with the Allied nations. The country also acquired an opportunity to call for an alteration and even an annulment of unequal treaties that had previously been signed with powerful nations.
Initially, the area where the monument stands was a crowded residential area, but on 28 December 1917, a fire broke out and ravaged almost the entire neighbourhood. Chaophraya Yommaraj (Pun Sukhum), Minister of the Metropolitan Department at the time, recognised the disaster as a chance to reorganise the city, and sent a request to the King asking for permission to construct new roads, along with a 120-metre diameter memorial circle.
Once it was brought to his attention, King Vajiravudh granted permission and, although there is no evidence that the King intended for the whole area to be called by the same name, "22 July", the day of the country's participation in the Great War, was designated as a commemorative name. The construction of the circle and the roads began on 27 January 1918.
During the reign of King Rama VII, the Ministry of Interior pleaded with the King for the roads to be renamed since it caused confusion among the public. King Prajadhipok asked Phrasarn Prasert to propose new names for each road, and in July 1932, the names were changed as follows:
- 22 July Road 1 became Maitri Chit Road.
- 22 July Road 2 became Mittraphan Road.
- 22 July Road 3 became Santiphap Road.
Meanwhile, the circle remained known by the same name - "22 July" - per the Ministry's request.